Introduction to Garageband and Podcasting
Garageband, the popular digital audio workstation developed by Apple, has become a go-to tool for podcasters worldwide. With its intuitive interface, powerful editing capabilities, and a wide range of built-in audio effects, Garageband provides podcasters with all the necessary tools to create professional-sounding podcasts right from the comfort of their own homes.
In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the world of podcasting using Garageband, exploring everything from the basics of podcasting to the intricacies of recording, editing, and mastering your podcast episodes. Whether you’re a seasoned podcaster looking to enhance your production quality or a newbie eager to embark on your podcasting journey, this guide will equip you with the knowledge and skills needed to create engaging and high-quality podcast content.
Before we dive into the technical aspects of using Garageband for podcasting, let’s take a moment to understand the phenomenon of podcasting itself. Podcasting has revolutionized the way we consume audio content, offering a unique blend of entertainment, education, and communication. With podcasts covering a vast array of topics, from true crime to self-improvement, there is a podcast out there for every interest and niche.
Podcasts are audio shows that are distributed over the internet, allowing listeners to download or stream episodes at their convenience. This on-demand nature of podcasting has contributed to its immense popularity, as listeners can enjoy their favorite shows while commuting, exercising, or simply relaxing at home. Additionally, podcasts offer a more intimate and personal connection between the host and the audience, fostering a sense of community and engagement.
Why Garageband for Podcasting?
With numerous digital audio workstations available in the market, you might wonder why Garageband stands out as a preferred choice for podcasters. Garageband boasts a user-friendly interface that is accessible to both beginners and experienced audio producers. Its seamless integration with other Apple products and its inclusion as a free software in the iLife suite has made it a go-to option for many podcasters, especially those using Mac computers.
Garageband offers a wide array of features tailored specifically for podcasting. From its intuitive recording tools to its extensive library of audio effects and royalty-free soundtracks, Garageband provides everything you need to create professional-quality podcasts. Whether you want to record solo episodes, conduct interviews, or add music and sound effects to enhance your show, Garageband has got you covered.
In the following sections, we will guide you through the process of setting up your podcasting environment, understanding Garageband’s interface and tools, recording and editing your podcast episodes, and finally, publishing and promoting your podcast to reach a wider audience. So, without further ado, let’s dive into the world of podcasting with Garageband and unlock the potential to captivate and inspire through the power of audio storytelling.
Setting Up Your Podcasting Environment
Creating a suitable podcasting environment is crucial for producing high-quality audio content. Before you hit the record button, it’s important to ensure that you have the right equipment and a well-prepared recording space. In this section, we will guide you through the process of choosing the right equipment and creating an optimal recording environment for your podcast.
Choosing the Right Equipment
When it comes to podcasting, having the right equipment is essential to capture clear and professional-sounding audio. Let’s take a look at the key components you’ll need to set up your podcasting studio.
A microphone is perhaps the most critical piece of equipment for podcasting. It’s responsible for capturing your voice and delivering it with clarity to your audience. There are several types of microphones to choose from, such as dynamic, condenser, and lavalier microphones.
Dynamic microphones are known for their durability and ability to handle high sound pressure levels, making them ideal for recording in less controlled environments. They are less sensitive to background noise and are commonly used in broadcasting and live performances.
Condenser microphones, on the other hand, are highly sensitive and capture a wider range of frequencies. They are often preferred in studio environments where background noise can be minimized. Condenser microphones provide a more detailed and professional sound, making them a popular choice among podcasters.
Lavalier microphones, also known as lapel microphones, are small clip-on microphones that can be attached to your clothing. They are commonly used in interviews or situations where mobility is important. Lavalier microphones are great for capturing clear audio while allowing you to move freely.
When selecting a microphone, consider factors such as your recording environment, budget, and personal preference. It’s also worth investing in a pop filter or windscreen to reduce plosive sounds and improve the overall audio quality.
Using headphones while recording and editing your podcast is essential for monitoring the audio and ensuring its quality. Closed-back headphones are commonly recommended for podcasting as they provide better noise isolation, preventing sound leakage into the microphone. Look for headphones that offer a flat frequency response, as they will give you a more accurate representation of the recorded audio.
An audio interface acts as a bridge between your microphone and your computer. It converts the analog audio signal from your microphone into a digital format that can be processed and recorded on your computer. Audio interfaces come in various sizes and offer different features, such as multiple input channels and built-in preamps. Consider the number of microphones you plan to use and the level of audio quality you desire when choosing an audio interface.
Creating a Suitable Recording Space
Once you have the right equipment, it’s time to create a suitable recording space. The goal is to minimize external noise, echoes, and other unwanted sounds that can degrade the quality of your recordings. Here are some tips to help you set up your recording environment:
Select a quiet location: Choose a room or area where external noises, such as traffic or appliances, are minimal. Avoid rooms with hard surfaces that can cause echoes or reverberations.
Soundproofing or sound treatment options: If you’re dealing with a noisy environment, consider soundproofing techniques to reduce external noise. This can include using thick curtains, acoustic foam panels, or even building a small vocal booth. Additionally, sound treatments like bass traps and diffusers can be used to improve the overall acoustics of your space.
Tips for optimizing your recording environment: Pay attention to the placement of your microphone and your position in the room. Experiment with different setups to find the best configuration for capturing clear and balanced audio. Consider using a microphone stand or boom arm to keep the microphone stable and at the optimal distance from your mouth.
By following these guidelines, you’ll be well on your way to creating a podcasting environment that ensures optimal audio quality and minimizes distractions. Now that you have your equipment and recording space set up, it’s time to explore Garageband’s interface and tools. Let’s move on to the next section and dive into the world of Garageband podcasting.
Understanding Garageband’s Interface and Tools
Once you have set up your podcasting environment, it’s time to familiarize yourself with Garageband’s interface and tools. Garageband offers a user-friendly and intuitive platform that allows you to navigate through its features effortlessly. In this section, we will delve into the various components of Garageband’s interface and explore the tools at your disposal.
When you first open Garageband, you’ll be greeted with a clean and organized interface that is designed to streamline your workflow. Let’s take a closer look at the main elements you’ll encounter when working with Garageband.
Tracks and Regions
The central focus of Garageband’s interface is the Tracks area. Here, you’ll find the tracks that make up your podcast episode. Each track represents a different audio source, such as a voice recording, music track, or sound effect. You can add, delete, and arrange these tracks to create your desired podcast episode structure.
Within each track, you’ll find regions, which represent the recorded audio or imported audio files. Regions can be resized, trimmed, and moved around the timeline to edit your podcast episode seamlessly. Garageband also allows you to split regions, enabling you to perform precise edits and rearrange sections of your audio.
Controls and Transport Bar
Located at the top of the Garageband interface, you’ll find the Controls and Transport Bar. This section provides you with essential controls for recording, playback, and navigation.
The Transport Bar allows you to play, pause, rewind, fast forward, or jump to specific sections of your podcast episode. It also displays the timeline position and the duration of your project. Additionally, you can use the Cycle Region feature to loop a specific section of your podcast for focused editing.
The Controls section offers buttons for recording, enabling the metronome, activating the count-in, and adjusting the tempo. It also provides options to toggle the musical grid, which can be helpful for aligning audio regions and maintaining a consistent rhythm.
Library and Smart Controls
On the right side of the Garageband interface, you’ll find the Library and Smart Controls panels. The Library panel provides you with a vast collection of pre-recorded loops, sound effects, virtual instruments, and presets. You can browse through different categories and genres to find the perfect audio elements to enhance your podcast.
The Smart Controls panel allows you to adjust various parameters, such as volume, panning, EQ, and effects, for each track in your project. It provides a user-friendly interface that simplifies the process of fine-tuning your podcast’s audio.
Exploring Garageband’s Tools
Garageband offers a wide array of powerful tools and features that allow you to customize and enhance your podcast’s sound. Let’s explore some of the key tools you’ll find in Garageband.
Audio Recording Options and Settings
Garageband provides multiple options for recording audio, allowing you to choose the method that works best for your podcasting setup. You can record directly into Garageband using your computer’s built-in microphone or connect external microphones or audio interfaces for higher-quality recordings. Garageband supports multi-channel recording, enabling you to record multiple microphones or audio sources simultaneously.
Within Garageband’s preferences, you can configure various recording settings, such as sample rate, bit depth, and audio input options. It’s important to choose the appropriate settings to ensure optimal audio quality and compatibility with other devices or platforms.
Editing Tools and Features
Garageband offers a comprehensive set of editing tools that enable you to refine your podcast’s audio. You can trim, split, and merge audio regions to remove unwanted sections or rearrange your podcast episode. Garageband also provides features like fade in, fade out, and crossfades to create smooth transitions between different segments of your podcast.
Moreover, Garageband allows you to adjust the volume and panning of individual tracks, ensuring a balanced mix. You can also apply automation to control the volume, panning, or other parameters over time, adding dynamic changes to your podcast’s sound.
Effects and Plugins
To enhance the sound of your podcast, Garageband offers a wide range of built-in audio effects and plugins. These effects allow you to shape and mold your audio to achieve the desired tone and atmosphere. You can apply EQ (equalization) to adjust the frequency balance, compression to control the dynamic range, and reverb to add a sense of space to your podcast recordings.
Garageband also supports third-party plugins, giving you access to an even wider range of effects and processing tools. With the ability to use external plugins, you can explore different creative possibilities and tailor the sound of your podcast to your specific preferences.
As you become more comfortable with Garageband’s interface and tools, you’ll unlock endless possibilities for creating professional and engaging podcast episodes. In the next section, we will dive into the specifics of recording and editing your podcast using Garageband. Let’s continue exploring the world of Garageband podcasting!
Recording and Editing Your Podcast in Garageband
Now that you are familiar with Garageband’s interface and tools, it’s time to dive into the process of recording and editing your podcast episodes. Garageband provides a seamless workflow that allows you to capture high-quality audio and polish it to perfection. In this section, we will guide you through the steps of preparing for recording, recording your podcast, and editing it to create a professional and engaging final product.
Preparing for Recording
Before you hit the record button, it’s essential to ensure that your project settings and audio levels are properly configured. These preparatory steps will help you achieve optimal audio quality and avoid any technical issues during the recording process.
Setting up Your Project and Track Settings
Start by creating a new project in Garageband specifically for your podcast episode. Select the appropriate project template and set the desired sample rate and bit depth for your recording. It’s recommended to use a sample rate of 44.1 kHz and a bit depth of 16 bits, as these are standard settings for audio production.
Next, configure the track settings for your podcast episode. You can adjust parameters such as the track type (audio or software instrument), the number of tracks, and the input source for each track. If you’re recording multiple microphones or audio sources, make sure to assign the correct input sources to each track.
Adjusting Input Levels and Checking Audio Quality
Properly setting the input levels is crucial to capture clean and distortion-free audio. Garageband provides visual indicators to help you monitor the input levels as you record. Aim for a healthy signal level that avoids clipping (when the audio becomes distorted due to the input signal being too loud). Adjust the input gain on your audio interface or adjust the input volume in Garageband to achieve the desired input levels.
Before you start recording your podcast episode, it’s a good practice to perform a quick test recording and playback. This allows you to check the audio quality, ensure that the input levels are appropriate, and verify that all your equipment is functioning correctly. Listen carefully for any background noise, hum, or other unwanted artifacts that may affect the overall audio quality.
Recording Your Podcast
With your project settings and audio levels properly configured, you’re ready to start recording your podcast episode. Whether you’re recording solo episodes or conducting interviews, Garageband offers a straightforward process for capturing your audio.
Using the Built-in Microphone or External Microphones
Garageband allows you to record audio using your computer’s built-in microphone or external microphones connected to your audio interface. If you’re using the built-in microphone, position yourself at an appropriate distance from the computer to ensure clear and balanced audio. Make sure to minimize any background noise or distractions that could affect the recording quality.
If you’re using external microphones, make sure they are connected properly to your audio interface and assigned to the correct input channels in Garageband. Each microphone should be positioned appropriately to capture the best sound quality. Consider using pop filters or windshields to reduce plosive sounds and minimize unwanted noise.
Tips for Speaking Clearly and Professionally
When recording your podcast, it’s important to speak clearly and confidently to engage your audience. Here are some tips to help you deliver a professional and polished performance:
- Maintain a consistent distance from the microphone to ensure a consistent audio level throughout your recording.
- Speak with good posture and proper breath control to project your voice effectively.
- Pay attention to your articulation and enunciation, ensuring that your words are clear and easy to understand.
- Use appropriate pacing and intonation to add emphasis and convey your message effectively.
- Minimize vocal tics (such as ums and uhs) and avoid excessive filler words to maintain a smooth flow.
Monitoring Your Audio While Recording
It’s important to monitor your audio while recording to ensure that everything sounds as intended. Garageband provides real-time monitoring, allowing you to hear your audio through your headphones while recording. This enables you to catch any issues or errors during the recording process and make adjustments as needed.
Keep an eye on the input levels displayed in Garageband to ensure that they stay within an optimal range. If you notice any sudden spikes or drops in the input levels, you may need to adjust the microphone position, input gain, or volume settings to maintain a consistent audio level.
Editing Your Podcast
Once you have completed the recording of your podcast episode, it’s time to edit and refine the audio to create a polished final product. Garageband offers a wide range of editing tools and features to help you shape your podcast episodes. Let’s explore some of the key editing techniques you can use in Garageband.
Trimming and Arranging Audio Regions
Garageband allows you to trim and arrange audio regions to remove any unwanted sections or to reorganize the flow of your podcast episode. By selecting the desired region, you can crop or extend it to create seamless transitions between different segments. This allows you to create a cohesive narrative or structure for your podcast episode.
You can also split audio regions at specific points to perform more precise edits. This is useful when you want to remove mistakes or cut out unnecessary pauses or interruptions. By splitting and rearranging audio regions, you have the flexibility to fine-tune your podcast episode and create a smooth listening experience for your audience.
Managing Multiple Tracks and Adding Music or Sound Effects
Garageband supports multiple tracks, allowing you to combine different audio sources, such as voice recordings, music tracks, or sound effects. By adding music or sound effects to your podcast, you can enhance the mood, emphasize key points, or transition between different segments.
Garageband provides a vast library of pre-recorded loops, sound effects, and virtual instruments that you can incorporate into your podcast episodes. You can browse through different genres and categories to find the perfect audio elements that complement your content. Simply drag and drop the desired loops or sound effects onto your tracks to add them to your podcast episode.
Removing Background Noise and Enhancing Audio Quality
To ensure a clean and professional-sounding podcast, it’s important to remove any background noise or unwanted artifacts from your audio recordings. Garageband offers a range of tools and features to help you achieve this.
You can use the Noise Gate effect to reduce or eliminate background noise when there is silence between your speech or when you’re not actively speaking. The Noise Gate effectively mutes the audio below a certain threshold, allowing only the desired audio to be heard.
Garageband also provides equalization (EQ) tools that allow you to adjust the frequency balance of your audio. By applying EQ, you can enhance the clarity and presence of your voice or reduce any unwanted resonances or frequencies that may affect the overall audio quality.
In addition to EQ, Garageband offers compression tools to control the dynamic range of your podcast episode. Compression helps to even out the volume levels, ensuring that softer parts are audible while preventing louder sections from clipping. By using compression effectively, you can create a consistent and balanced sound throughout your podcast episode.
Mixing and Mastering Your Podcast
Once you have edited your podcast episode to your satisfaction, it’s time to mix and master it to achieve a polished and professional sound. Mixing involves adjusting the volume levels, panning, and effects of each track to create a balanced and cohesive mix. This ensures that all elements of your podcast, such as your voice, music, and sound effects, blend harmoniously.
Garageband provides a range of tools and features to help you achieve a professional mix. You can adjust the volume levels of individual tracks to ensure that they are well balanced and that your voice remains clear and prominent. Panning allows you to position audio sources in the stereo field, creating a sense of space and depth in your podcast episode.
Moreover, Garageband offers a variety of audio effects and plugins that you can use during the mixing process. These effects can help enhance the overall sound quality, add depth and character, or create unique sonic textures for your podcast.
Once you are satisfied with the mix, it’s time to master your podcast episode. Mastering involves applying the final touches to your mix to ensure that it translates well across various playback systems and platforms. This includes adjusting the overall volume level, applying subtle compression and EQ, and ensuring that your podcast meets industry loudness standards.
Garageband provides mastering presets that can be applied to your podcast episode with a single click. These presets are designed to optimize the audio for different playback scenarios, such as streaming platforms or radio broadcasts. You can also fine-tune the mastering settings manually to achieve the desired outcome.
Exporting Your Final Podcast Episode
After you have finished mixing and mastering your podcast episode, it’s time to export it in a format that can be shared with your audience. Garageband offers various export options to ensure compatibility with different platforms and devices.
Before exporting, it’s important to choose the appropriate file format and quality settings. For podcasting, it’s recommended to export your episode in a compressed audio format, such as MP3 or AAC, to reduce file size while maintaining acceptable audio quality.
Garageband provides export presets specifically tailored for podcasting, ensuring that your final episode meets the required specifications. You can customize the export settings to adjust the bit rate, sample rate, and other parameters according to your preferences and the requirements of your chosen podcast hosting platform.
Once you have selected the desired export settings, Garageband will generate the final audio file of your podcast episode. Save the exported file to your desired location on your computer and keep it well-organized for future reference or uploading to your podcast hosting platform.
Congratulations! You have successfully recorded, edited, and polished your podcast episode using Garageband. In the next section, we will explore the process of publishing and promoting your podcast to reach a wider audience. Let’s continue our journey in the world of Garageband podcasting!
Publishing and Promoting Your Podcast
Congratulations on creating a remarkable podcast episode using Garageband! Now that your podcast is ready, it’s time to share it with the world. In this section, we will guide you through the process of publishing and promoting your podcast to reach a wider audience and build a loyal listener base.
Choosing a Podcast Hosting Platform
To make your podcast accessible to listeners, you’ll need to host it on a dedicated podcast hosting platform. Podcast hosting platforms serve as the backend infrastructure for your podcast, enabling you to upload and distribute your episodes to various podcast directories.
There are several podcast hosting platforms to choose from, each offering different features and pricing plans. Some popular options include:
- Libsyn: Known as one of the oldest and most reliable podcast hosting platforms, Libsyn offers comprehensive analytics, customizable podcast pages, and integration with various podcast directories.
- Buzzsprout: Buzzsprout is a user-friendly hosting platform that provides easy episode scheduling, podcast statistics, and the ability to monetize your podcast through affiliate marketing.
- Podbean: Podbean offers a range of hosting plans, including a free option, and provides features such as customizable podcast websites, monetization options, and advanced analytics.
- Anchor: Anchor is a free podcast hosting platform that offers a simple and intuitive interface, unlimited hosting, and easy integration with popular podcast directories.
When selecting a podcast hosting platform, consider factors such as pricing, storage limits, analytics, ease of use, and the platform’s reputation. It’s crucial to choose a platform that aligns with your podcasting goals and provides the necessary features to support your podcast’s growth.
Submitting Your Podcast to Directories
Once your podcast is hosted on a dedicated platform, the next step is to submit it to various podcast directories. Podcast directories are platforms where listeners discover and subscribe to podcasts. The most popular podcast directory is Apple Podcasts, but there are also other directories worth considering, such as Spotify, Google Podcasts, Stitcher, and TuneIn.
Here’s a step-by-step guide to submitting your podcast to directories:
Apple Podcasts: Create an Apple ID if you don’t have one already. Visit the Apple Podcasts Connect website and sign in with your Apple ID. Follow the instructions to submit your podcast’s RSS feed, provide relevant information, and upload your podcast artwork. Apple will review your submission, and once approved, your podcast will be available on Apple Podcasts.
Spotify: Spotify has made it easier for podcasters to submit their shows directly through their Spotify for Podcasters platform. Create an account, claim your podcast, and submit it for review. Spotify will evaluate your podcast, and if accepted, it will be accessible to Spotify’s vast user base.
Google Podcasts: Google Podcasts uses RSS feeds to populate its directory. Ensure that your podcast is hosted on a platform that generates an RSS feed for your show. Once your podcast is live on your hosting platform, it will automatically be available on Google Podcasts.
Stitcher: Stitcher offers a submission process through their partner platform, Omny Studio. Sign up for an Omny Studio account and follow the submission instructions to get your podcast listed on Stitcher.
TuneIn: TuneIn accepts podcast submissions through their partner platform, Anchor. If your podcast is hosted on Anchor, you can submit it directly through the Anchor dashboard. If you’re using a different hosting platform, you’ll need to reach out to TuneIn’s support team for submission instructions.
Remember to provide accurate and compelling descriptions, relevant episode tags, and captivating podcast artwork to attract potential listeners. It’s also advisable to optimize your podcast’s metadata by including relevant keywords and ensuring that your podcast’s title and description accurately represent the content.
Promoting Your Podcast
Publishing your podcast on various directories is just the beginning. To grow your listener base and engage with your audience, it’s essential to actively promote your podcast. Here are some effective strategies for promoting your podcast:
1. Leverage Social Media
Utilize social media platforms to create buzz around your podcast. Share snippets or highlights from your episodes, create visually appealing graphics, and provide behind-the-scenes looks at your podcasting process. Engage with your audience by responding to comments and questions, and use relevant hashtags to increase your visibility.
2. Collaborate with Other Podcasters
Collaborating with other podcasters can help expand your reach and tap into new audiences. Consider guest appearances on other podcasts or hosting interviews with influential figures in your niche. By cross-promoting each other’s shows, you can expose your podcast to a wider audience and create meaningful connections within the podcasting community.
3. Create Compelling Show Notes and Blog Posts
Enhance your podcast episodes with detailed show notes that summarize the key points discussed. Include timestamps, relevant links, and additional resources to provide value to your listeners. Additionally, consider creating blog posts that explore topics related to your podcast. This not only provides additional content for your audience but also helps with search engine optimization (SEO) and attracting new listeners.
4. Engage with Your Audience
Building a loyal audience involves establishing a connection with your listeners. Encourage feedback, questions, and suggestions from your audience through social media, email, or dedicated platforms like Discord or Facebook Groups. Engaging with your audience shows that you value their input and helps foster a sense of community around your podcast.
5. Seek Reviews and Ratings
Positive reviews and ratings can significantly impact your podcast’s visibility and credibility. Encourage your listeners to leave reviews and ratings on podcast directories like Apple Podcasts. You can incentivize this by offering shoutouts, exclusive content, or giveaways to those who leave reviews.
6. Utilize Email Marketing
Build an email list of dedicated listeners who want to stay updated on your podcast. Send regular newsletters highlighting new episodes, exclusive content, and behind-the-scenes insights. Email marketing allows you to nurture your relationship with your audience and keep them engaged and excited about your podcast.
These strategies, combined with consistency and high-quality content, will help you establish and grow your podcast’s audience over time. Remember, promoting your podcast is an ongoing effort, so continuously explore new avenues and adapt your strategies based on audience feedback and engagement.
Publishing and promoting your podcast is an exciting journey that requires dedication, creativity, and persistence. By utilizing podcast hosting platforms, submitting your podcast to directories, and actively promoting your show, you can expand your listener base and connect with a broader audience. Remember to leverage social media, collaborate with other podcasters, engage with your audience, and seek reviews and ratings to maximize your podcast’s visibility and impact.
Now that you have learned how to record, edit, publish, and promote your podcast using Garageband, it’s time to embark on your podcasting journey. Embrace the power of audio storytelling, share your unique voice with the world, and watch your podcast grow and flourish. Best of luck, and happy podcasting!
Congratulations! You have reached the end of this comprehensive guide on how to record a podcast in Garageband. We have covered everything from setting up your podcasting environment to understanding Garageband’s interface and tools, recording and editing your podcast episodes, and finally, publishing and promoting your podcast to reach a wider audience.
By now, you should have a solid understanding of how Garageband can be your trusted companion in the podcasting journey. Its user-friendly interface, powerful recording and editing capabilities, and seamless integration with podcast hosting platforms and directories make it an ideal choice for both beginners and experienced podcasters.
Remember, podcasting is not only about the technical aspects but also about creating meaningful and engaging content. While Garageband provides you with the tools to produce professional-sounding podcasts, it is your unique voice, ideas, and storytelling skills that will captivate and resonate with your audience.
As you embark on your podcasting journey, don’t be afraid to experiment, learn from your experiences, and continuously improve. Consistency is key, so aim to release episodes on a regular schedule to keep your audience engaged and coming back for more. Listen to feedback from your listeners and adapt your content and style accordingly.
Lastly, always stay passionate about your podcasting endeavor. It may take time to build a loyal listener base, but with dedication, perseverance, and a genuine love for what you do, your podcast has the potential to make a positive impact and become a valuable source of information, inspiration, and entertainment for your audience.
So, grab your microphone, open Garageband, and start recording your podcast. Share your stories, insights, and knowledge with the world. Embrace the power of audio and let your voice be heard. Good luck, and may your podcasting journey be filled with success and fulfillment!